Differentiated integration in the external relations of the European Union
Juha Jokela (ed.)
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integration is not a new phenomenon in European integration. It has taken
various forms over a wide range of policy areas in the past. Importantly,
differentiated integration is not merely an internal question for the EU as the
Union’s organization and internal dynamics also shape its external actorness.
Consequently, various forms of differentiation are present in the EU’s external
relations and policies.
objective of this report is to take a closer look at differentiated integration
in the EU’s external relations and, in so doing, to discuss its implications
for the EU’s aspirations to forge more unitary and effective external policies.
To this end, the contributors to this report will examine the different
features of differentiated integration that currently exist in various fields
of the EU’s external relations. Relatedly, they will analyze whether the level
of differentiation is increasing and, if so, what the key drivers of the
current trends are.
there is rather limited evidence that the level of differentiation is
increasing in the EU’s external relations due to the ongoing developments
related to the EU’s financial and economic crisis. Depending on the level and
duration of differentiation embedded in the current reforms of the EMU, some
consequences might occur in due course.