FIIA Report 41
The EU eastward 2004 enlargement and the consequent entry of new EU member states into the Schengen area in 2007 resulted in a considerable increase in visa fees and complications concerning visa procedures for applicants. As a result, the Local Border Traffic (LBT) Regulation appeared to be a timely legal tool for the eastern EU member states to mitigate the negative effects of their accession to the Schengen area and to keep the borders ajar for legitimate border-crossing for family, cultural, social and economic reasons. The 2006 EU Regulation makes it possible for the EU countries and Schengen non-EU members to conclude agreements with neighbouring third states on a visa-free land border-crossing regime for border residents. Andrei Yeliseyeu analyses the functioning and potential of the Local Border Traffic Regulation in the latest FIIA Report.
Geopolitics is increasingly defined by the strengthening force of stable and secure global flows of goods, resources, finance, people and information. These flows rely on and use the various common domains: the high seas, airspace, space and cyberspace. This report highlights a shift away from territorial geopolitics towards the geopolitics of global flows and global commons, and analyzes the implications of this geopolitical transformation to Finland. The report is the final output of a research project funded by the Scientific Advisory Board for Defence and the National Emergency Supply Agency.
Karl Lallerstedt & Mikael Wigell
Mika Aaltola, Joonas Sipilä, Valtteri Vuorisalo
FIIA Analysis 1
Since December 2009, the European Union has been represented abroad by more than 130 delegations, which are an integral part of the new European External Action Service (EEAS). Heidi Maurer and Kristi Raik argue that, following on from an early albeit cautious success, the delegations should take a stronger role in providing input into EU policy-making, promoting European interests abroad, and advancing consensus among member states’ representatives in the field. The publication launches FIIA Analysis series which provides in-depth analysis of policy-relevant issues in international affairs.
Rosa Balfour & Kristi Raik
Kristi Raik & Teemu Rantanen
Russia’s actions in Crimea may have profound implications for European security landscape. However, before any major conclusions can be made, we should carefully analyze not just events on the ground, but the ways in which they are framed in the Russian (and Western) discourse. This may help us to better understand what is going on, Senior Research Fellow Katri Pynnöniemi argues in the latest FIIA Column.
Differentiated integration is not a new phenomenon in European integration. It has taken various forms over a wide range of policy areas in the past. Importantly, differentiated integration is not merely an internal question for the EU as the Union’s organization and internal dynamics also shape its external actorness. Consequently, various forms of differentiation are present in the EU’s external relations and policies. The objective of this report is to take a closer look at differentiated integration in the EU’s external relations and to discuss its implications for the EU’s aspirations to forge more unitary and effective external policies.
The financial and economic crisis has reinforced the two-layer economic integration structure in the EU, Samu Kurri argues in the latest FIIA Briefing Paper. Even if the Eurogroup remains ‘formally informal’, it has managed to transform itself into a de facto institution within the EU, and its role and weight is likely to increase rather than decrease. The paper is part of a joint research project carried out by FIIA and the Research Institute for the Finnish Economy (ETLA) with the support of the Jane & Aatos Erkko Foundation.
According to a popular notion, huge natural resource reserves located in the Arctic region will lead to a conflictual "gold rush" when Arctic states compete to claim these reserves for themselves. However, an interstate conflict in the Arctic would most likely relate to complex global dynamics that may spill over to the region and which cannot be addressed with existing Arctic governance mechanisms. Juha Käpylä and Harri Mikkola argue that this extra-Arctic perspective should be increasingly taken into consideration by scholars and policy-makers.
Juha Käpylä & Harri Mikkola
Harri Mikkola & Juha Käpylä
FIIA Report 37
The latest FIIA Report by Sean P. Roberts presents a symbiosis of views from European and US researchers and practitioners on Russia's international role. The report argues that Russia is not viewed as a strategic partner for either the EU or the US, but as an ‘ad hoc’ partner, willing to cooperate on a narrow range of issues that fall well within its own interests. Russia’s weakness on the international stage often limits its ability to be a strategic competitor and sometimes Russia is seen to play the role of ‘spoiler’ — an actor unable to push its own self-interest to conclusion, but ready to hinder other actors from achieving their goals.
In the media, 30.7.2014
Programme Director at the Institute Mika Aaltola discussed the Israel-Palestine question in Yle aamu-tv on July 30th. According to him, the issue should be met with a two-state solution where cross-border movement would be free and the economies of Israel and Palestine would be intertwined. (in Finnish)
In the media, 29.7.2014
Director of the Institute Teija Tiilikainen commented on the sanctions against Russia in Kauppalehti on July 29th. According to her, the EU's common policies are usually characterized by one member state gaining or losing more than the others, but in the long run the differences become leveled. (in Finnish)
In the media, 29.7.2014
Senior Research Fellow at the Institute Kristi Raik discussed resolving international conflicts in Yle aamu-tv on July 29th. According to her, the change in the nature of warfare and the asymmetry of conflicts for example in Ukraine makes protecting civilians and resolving conflicts through negotiations even more difficult. (in Finnish)
Briefing Paper 158
The European Union research programme focuses on the EU's global and regional role, including the internal dynamics of the Union. The main research themes are the EU's external relations, economic policies and institutional development.
The EU's Eastern Neighbourhood and Russia research programme studies the EU's eastern environment with a special focus on Russia's domestic, foreign and security policy. In particular, the programme concentrates on political developments in the region and the process of the Eurasian integration. It also studies international relations in the EU's eastern neighbourhood and the relationship between the region and the EU.
The Global Security research programme approaches global security challenges within the framework of broad security. The programme seeks to understand the global trajectories of security that have significance for the European and Finnish security environments. The issues approached include the prospects for global governance systems, changes in the major power structure, significant factors in functional and regional security and insecurity, the role of the transatlantic relationship in world politics, and the different dimensions of the European security policy.
The aim of the Center for US Politics and Power is to provide research and expertise on the US global role and its foreign and domestic policy. The Center works in conjunction with the Global Security Programme at the FIIA and was established in 2013. FIIA's US research is supported by the Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation.