EU sanctions against Russia
Photo by Emiliano / Flickr.com

EU sanctions against Russia

Briefing Paper

EU sanctions against Russia: Europe brings a hard edge to its economic power

Kristi Raik, Niklas Helwig and Juha Jokela argue that the EU has responded to the Ukraine crisis with a set of political and economic sanctions against Russia which constitute a qualitatively new step in the EU sanction policy. The EU sanctions against Russia are exceptional and have strategic importance due to a combination of three factors: big power rivalry, the context of a major European crisis with global ramifications, and the costs of the sanctions for the EU itself.

FIIA Comment

A pause in the conflict in Ukraine

Arkady Moshes

Eurasian Economic Union facing an uphill struggle
Photo: the Presidential Press and Information Office of Russia

Eurasian Economic Union facing an uphill struggle

FIIA Analysis

The Eurasian Economic Union: Breaking the pattern of post-Soviet integration?

The Eurasian Economic Union between Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, due to come into effect from January 2015, consolidates a market of 170 million people with a combined GDP of almost 3 trillion US dollars. On paper, the union has the potential to transform economic relations in the region and to offer an alternative to the EU in the post-Soviet space. However, weak institutions and large asymmetry between member states are continuing to hinder closer ties and the crisis in Ukraine had led to an increasingly hostile international environment. Hence, the Eurasian Economic Union faces an uphill struggle to maintain momentum and deliver the results member states desire, the latest FIIA Analysis argues.

Approaches to conflict management
UN Photo / Sylvain Fliechti

Approaches to conflict management

FIIA Analysis

Managing conflict after civil war - The power-sharing and power-dividing approaches

Matthew Hoddie's FIIA Analysis considers two institutional alternatives for managing conflict following the negotiated settlement of civil war. The most common set of institutional structures that former civil war combat-ants adopt are associated with power sharing across the political, military, territorial, and economic dimensions of state power. An alternative is the adoption of power-dividing institutions limiting the scope of government authority and establishing a wide-ranging system of checks and balances intended to manage the competing interests within a country.

Local border traffic regulation helps keep borders ajar
Photo by European Commission

Local border traffic regulation helps keep borders ajar

FIIA Report 41

Keeping the Door Ajar: Local border traffic regimes on the EU’s eastern borders

The EU eastward 2004 enlargement and the consequent entry of new EU member states into the Schengen area in 2007 resulted in a considerable increase in visa fees and complications concerning visa procedures for applicants. As a result, the Local Border Traffic (LBT) Regulation appeared to be a timely legal tool for the eastern EU member states to mitigate the negative effects of their accession to the Schengen area and to keep the borders ajar for legitimate border-crossing for family, cultural, social and economic reasons. The 2006 EU Regulation makes it possible for the EU countries and Schengen non-EU members to conclude agreements with neighbouring third states on a visa-free land border-crossing regime for border residents. Andrei Yeliseyeu analyses the functioning and potential of the Local Border Traffic Regulation in the latest FIIA Report.

Geopolitics of flows
Photo: Mike Herbst / Flickr / Creative Commons

Geopolitics of flows

Report 40

Towards the Geopolitics of Flows: Implications for Finland

Geopolitics is increasingly defined by the strengthening force of stable and secure global flows of goods, resources, finance, people and information. These flows rely on and use the various common domains: the high seas, airspace, space and cyberspace. This report highlights a shift away from territorial geopolitics towards the geopolitics of global flows and global commons, and analyzes the implications of this geopolitical transformation to Finland. The report is the final output of a research project funded by the Scientific Advisory Board for Defence and the National Emergency Supply Agency.

Working Paper

Securing global commons: A small state perspective

Mika Aaltola, Joonas Sipilä, Valtteri Vuorisalo

European diplomacy taking shape
The EU Delegation, on the Moskva River embankment in Moscow's Yakimanka neighbourhood, coordinates European diplomats on the ground. Photo: NVO / Wikimedia Commons.

European diplomacy taking shape

FIIA Analysis 1

Pioneers of a European Diplomatic System: EU delegations in Moscow and Washington

Since December 2009, the European Union has been represented abroad by more than 130 delegations, which are an integral part of the new European External Action Service (EEAS). Heidi Maurer and Kristi Raik argue that, following on from an early albeit cautious success, the delegations should take a stronger role in providing input into EU policy-making, promoting European interests abroad, and advancing consensus among member states’ representatives in the field. The publication launches FIIA Analysis series which provides in-depth analysis of policy-relevant issues in international affairs.

Report

Equipping the European Union for the 21st century

Rosa Balfour & Kristi Raik

FIIA Comment

Managing the decline of European diplomacy

Kristi Raik & Teemu Rantanen

European security landscape reshaped?
Photo: European Commission

European security landscape reshaped?

FIIA Column

Crimea as a trophy in the Kremlin symbolic game

Russia’s actions in Crimea may have profound implications for European security landscape. However, before any major conclusions can be made, we should carefully analyze not just events on the ground, but the ways in which they are framed in the Russian (and Western) discourse. This may help us to better understand what is going on, Senior Research Fellow Katri Pynnöniemi argues in the latest FIIA Column.

Differentiated integration
Photo by European External Action Service

Differentiated integration

Report

Multi-speed Europe? Differentiated integration in the external relations of the European Union

Differentiated integration is not a new phenomenon in European integration. It has taken various forms over a wide range of policy areas in the past. Importantly, differentiated integration is not merely an internal question for the EU as the Union’s organization and internal dynamics also shape its external actorness. Consequently, various forms of differentiation are present in the EU’s external relations and policies. The objective of this report is to take a closer look at differentiated integration in the EU’s external relations and to discuss its implications for the EU’s aspirations to forge more unitary and effective external policies.

Briefing Paper

European Defence Under Scrutiny

Tuomas Iso-Markku

Briefing Paper

Updating the EMU

Samu Kurri

Fri 21.11.2014 at 09:00-10:30

Minne menet, ilmastosopimus?

Requires registration

Wed 3.12.2014 at 09:30-11:00

The Illicit Global Economy: Counterfeiting and Piracy as Security Challenges

Requires registration

 

In the media, 21.11.2014

Salonius-Pasternak in Bloomberg

Charly Salonius-Pasternak, a security expert at the Finnish Institute of International Affairs in Helsinki, was quoted in Bloomerg on Friday 21th November. He termed Russia’s moves “quite a wake-up call” that makes it impossible for Finnish or Swedish politicians “who want to be taken seriously” to dismiss Russia’s buildup as low-level rearming.

In the media, 21.11.2014

Dr. Antto Vihma in Kaasupäivä in Helsinki

Dr. Antto Vihma reminded in Kaasupäivä on Tuesday 18th November in Helsinki that the Ukrainian crisis is not only a geopolitical game started by Russia. It also has geoeconomical dimensions where the energy plays the lead. (in Finnish)

Harri Mikkola, 21.11.2014

Epävarma arktinen: Arktiksen tulevaisuus vastakkainasettelun keppihevosena?

Arktisen alueen kehitystä ajavat eteenpäin globaalit dynamiikat jotka harvoin ovat lähtöisin arktiselta alueelta itsestään. Tämä pätee myös alueen taloudelliseen potentiaaliin. Arktikselle läikkyneet maailmanpolitiikan ongelmat ovat yhdistyneet voimistuneeseen näkemykseen arktisen alueen talouspotentiaalin ongelmista. Arktinen yhteistyö on perustunut tarpeeseen luoda stabiili investointi-ympäristö. Jos arktinen talouspotentiaali ei toteutuisi ja jos suurin stabilisoiva muuttuja - eli yhteiset taloudelliset intressit – poistuisi, jäljelle jäisi kuitenkin alueen sisä- ja ulkopoliittinen hyödyntäminen muun muassa keppihevosena kansallismielisyyden nostattamiseen ja viholliskuvien rakentamiseen.

EILEN - Archive and Chronology of Finnish Foreign Policy

The Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA) maintains an online archive Eilen which consists of speeches and key documents related to Finnish foreign policy. In addition, the site features a chronology detailing the most significant events in Finnish foreign policy since 1973.

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The European Union

The European Union

The European Union research programme focuses on the EU's global and regional role, including the internal dynamics of the Union. The main research themes are the EU's external relations, economic policies and institutional development.

The EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood and Russia

The EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood and Russia

The EU's Eastern Neighbourhood and Russia research programme studies the EU's eastern environment with a special focus on Russia's domestic, foreign and security policy. In particular, the programme concentrates on political developments in the region and the process of the Eurasian integration. It also studies international relations in the EU's eastern neighbourhood and the relationship between the region and the EU.

Global Security

Global Security

The Global Security research programme approaches global security challenges within the framework of broad security. The programme seeks to understand the global trajectories of security that have significance for the European and Finnish security environments. The issues approached include the prospects for global governance systems, changes in the major power structure, significant factors in functional and regional security and insecurity, the role of the transatlantic relationship in world politics, and the different dimensions of the European security policy.

The Center for US Politics and Power

The aim of the Center for US Politics and Power is to provide research and expertise on the US global role and its foreign and domestic policy. The Center works in conjunction with the Global Security Programme at the FIIA and was established in 2013. FIIA's US research is supported by the Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation.