The form of warfare Russia employed in Ukraine in 2014, often called hybrid war, has been aimed at defeating the target country by breaking its ability to resist without actually launching a full-scale military attack. Hybrid war is built on the combined use of military and non-military means, employing basically the whole spectrum of a state’s policy inventory. In a new FIIA Report, András Rácz asks whether the Russian hybrid war is a universal warfare method deployable anywhere.
Charly Salonius-Pasternak & Jarno Limnéll
The scope of the global climate policy is changing towards the post-2020 situation and the stringent regulation of carbon-intensive activities. A more ambitious climate policy is needed because global climate change shows no signs of abating – on the contrary, it seems to be worsening. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the solutions associated with the success of the EU’s emissions trading scheme. The latest FIIA Briefing Paper by Jarkko Levänen examines the prospects of Carbon capture technologies as a part of the EU’s climate policy.
Arkady Moshes examines the challenges faced by a war-torn Ukraine in the latest FIIA Briefing Paper. The military conflict in the eastern part of Ukraine is the main factor determining also the internal political situation in the country. On the one hand, as long as the conflict calls for national consolidation and strengthens the understanding that only a reformed Ukraine may hope to endure, the war should drive the transformation. On the other hand, the conflict poses a major impediment to the changes, not only because it is a drain on resources, but even more so because it tempts Ukraine to blame its own inaction on “objective difficulties”.
András Rácz, Sinikukka Saari
András Rácz & Arkady Moshes
Anna Kronlund's Working Paper focuses on the topical debates on the war-making powers of the US Congress and the President. President Barack Obama’s actions in relation to Libya (2011), Syria (2013), and more recently the "targeted” actions against ISIL in Iraq and Syria, have raised discussions about the powers of the President as the Commander-in-Chief vis-à-vis the powers of Congress. If and when should the President seek congressional authorization for the use of US armed forces?
Juha Käpylä & Harri Mikkola
The situation in Eastern Ukraine is often compared with that of Transnistria, the separatist region of Moldova. However, the two cases differ for a number of reasons, all of which will make the “Novorossiya” project much harder for Russia to sustain than Transnistria. First and foremost, unlike Transnistria, the Donetsk and Luhansk People’s Republics in their current shape will be unable to influence the everyday political and economic functioning of Ukraine. Senior Research Fellow András Rácz and Programme Director Arkady Moshes compare the separatist regions of Eastern Ukraine to Transnistria in the latest FIIA Analysis.
Kristi Raik, Niklas Helwig and Juha Jokela argue that the EU has responded to the Ukraine crisis with a set of political and economic sanctions against Russia which constitute a qualitatively new step in the EU sanction policy. The EU sanctions against Russia are exceptional and have strategic importance due to a combination of three factors: big power rivalry, the context of a major European crisis with global ramifications, and the costs of the sanctions for the EU itself.
The Eurasian Economic Union between Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, due to come into effect from January 2015, consolidates a market of 170 million people with a combined GDP of almost 3 trillion US dollars. On paper, the union has the potential to transform economic relations in the region and to offer an alternative to the EU in the post-Soviet space. However, weak institutions and large asymmetry between member states are continuing to hinder closer ties and the crisis in Ukraine had led to an increasingly hostile international environment. Hence, the Eurasian Economic Union faces an uphill struggle to maintain momentum and deliver the results member states desire, the latest FIIA Analysis argues.
Matthew Hoddie's FIIA Analysis considers two institutional alternatives for managing conflict following the negotiated settlement of civil war. The most common set of institutional structures that former civil war combat-ants adopt are associated with power sharing across the political, military, territorial, and economic dimensions of state power. An alternative is the adoption of power-dividing institutions limiting the scope of government authority and establishing a wide-ranging system of checks and balances intended to manage the competing interests within a country.
Tanja Tamminen (ed.)
In the media, 8.7.2015
Program Director at the institute Juha Jokela discussed the latest news on the Greek crisis in Yle Ykkösaamu (morning programme) on July 8th. Will the negotiators be able to still find a solution? Or will the long lasting crisis really lead to Greece's exit from the euro zone? (in Finnish)
The FIIA China Research Days, October 22-23, will examine the domestic and global ramifications of China’s dreams in the Xi Jinping era from political, economic and security-related perspectives. We invite proposals for papers from scholars at any stage of their career to explore these themes. Paper proposals should be sent to email@example.com by 20th August, 2015. (in Finnish)
Working Paper 87
Eoin Micheál McNamara, Magnus Nordenman & Charly Salonius-Pasternak
The European Union research programme focuses on the EU's global and regional role, including the internal dynamics of the Union. The main research themes are the EU's external relations, economic policies and institutional development.
The EU's Eastern Neighbourhood and Russia research programme studies the EU's eastern environment with a special focus on Russia's domestic, foreign and security policy. In particular, the programme concentrates on political developments in the region and the process of the Eurasian integration. It also studies international relations in the EU's eastern neighbourhood and the relationship between the region and the EU.
The Global Security research programme approaches global security challenges within the framework of broad security. The programme seeks to understand the global trajectories of security that have significance for the European and Finnish security environments. The issues approached include the prospects for global governance systems, changes in the major power structure, significant factors in functional and regional security and insecurity, the role of the transatlantic relationship in world politics, and the different dimensions of the European security policy.
The aim of the Center for US Politics and Power is to provide research and expertise on the US global role and its foreign and domestic policy. The Center works in conjunction with the Global Security Programme at the FIIA and was established in 2013. FIIA's US research is supported by the Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation.