At state strategic decision-maker and public opinion levels, Swedish defence politics fluctuates more than its Finnish counterpart.

During the past twenty-five years, different historical experiences and strategic cultures have caused Finland’s defence policies to underscore continuity, while Sweden’s have revelled in discontinuity.

The Swedish population now seems to believe that Sweden will be defended together with others, while the Finnish population remains sceptical of even the need for external assistance – especially if it requires a commitment to help defend others in return.